Style sheet


  • Use single quotation marks for quotes of four lines or less, and double quotation marks for quotes within quotes. When a quotation is more than four lines it should be written as a separate paragraph and indented only on the left. Any quotation marks within a block quote should be single.
  • Commas and period marks should be placed after quotation marks. Exclamation and interrogation marks that are part of the quotation should be written before the quotation marks.
  • Ellipsis in a quotation is marked by three dots, written in square brackets, as follows: […].



  • References are made by use of endnotes. They should be indicated in superscript Arabic numerals in the main text, using the Word function to insert endnotes. The list of endnotes should be headed ‘Notes and References’.
  • The first time a reference is given it should observe the format used in the following examples:
    • Joep Leerssen, Remembrance and Imagination: Patterns in the Historical and Literary Representation of Ireland in the Nineteenth Century (Cork: Cork University Press, 1997) 50.
    • Ina Ferris, ‘Narrating Cultural Encounter: Lady Morgan and the Irish National Tale’, Nineteenth Century Literature 51.3 (1996): 295.
    • Peter Mair, ‘Explaining the Absence of Class Politics’, The Development of Industrial Society in Ireland, eds. John H. Goldthorpe and Christopher T. Whelan (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992) 390.
    • Maura Crozier, ed., Cultural Traditions in Northern Ireland: Varieties of Irishness (Belfast: Institute of Irish Studies, Queens University of Belfast, 1989) 53.
    • Paula Meehan, ‘Interview with Amanda Sperry’, November 2008, web, 23 June 2009, <>.
    • Sean Swan, ‘Where Is the Irish Border? Theories of Division in Ireland’, Nordic Irish Studies 4 (2005): 85, JSTOR, web, 4 March 2010.
  • Later references to cited sources should only include surname and page reference (e.g.: Leerssen 55). If more than one source by the same author is used then a key word/s from the title is given (e.g.: Ferris, ‘Narrating Cultural Encounter’ 292).



  • Titles of poems, short stories, articles should be written in single quotation marks. Titles of books and journals should be written in italics.



  • British English spelling is used. E.g.: realise, colour, programme.



  • Do not use an apostrophe to form the plural of an abbreviation or a number. E.g.: PhDs, 1990s. To form the possessive of any singular proper noun add an apostrophe and an s. E.g.: Yeats’s.



  • Avoid overuse of abbreviations. Use abbreviations for names of states in bibliographic references; ed. for editor; trans. for translator; rpt. for reprint. Do not use full stops for contractions. E.g.: Mr, Mrs, UVF, IRA. Do not abbreviate University Press. For other common scholarly abbreviations and references please check MLA.



  • In general do not use hyphens after prefixes. E.g.: anti-, un-, under-, re-, post-, non-, co-.
Use a hyphen before a capital letter (e.g.: post-Victorian), and when the hyphen adds a difference in meaning (e.g.: re-cover vs. recover).



  • Use italics instead of underlining whenever necessary. Avoid using italics for emphasis. In general italicise foreign words, except for commonly used foreign words, abbreviations and phrases, such as e.g., raison d’être, et al., ad hoc, hubris. Italicise words and letters that are referred to as words and letters.



  • In titles and subtitles capitalise the first and the last word, as well as nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, and subordinating conjunctions. For capitalisation of titles in languages other than English check MLA.